Section: New Results

Set-Theoretic Methods of Control, Observer Design and Estimation

  • Interval Observers:

    • [19] New design of interval observers for continuous-time systems with discrete-time measurements is proposed. For this purpose new conditions of positivity for linear systems with sampled feedbacks are obtained. A sampled-data stabilizing control is synthesized based on provided interval estimates. Efficiency of the obtained solution is demonstrated on examples.

    • [66] The problem of interval state estimation is studied for systems described by parabolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). The proposed solution is based on a finite-element approximation of PDE, with posterior design of an interval observer for the obtained ordinary differential equation. The interval inclusion of the state function of PDE is obtained using the estimates on the error of discretization. The results are illustrated by numerical experiments with an academic example.

    • [18] New interval observers are designed for linear systems with time-varying delays in the case of delayed measurements. Interval observers employ positivity and stability analysis of the estimation error system, which in the case of delayed measurements should be delay-dependent. New delay-dependent conditions of positivity for linear systems with time-varying delays are introduced. Efficiency of the obtained solution is demonstrated on examples.

    • [22] Interval state observers provide an estimate on the set of admissible values of the state vector at each instant of time. Ideally, the size of the evaluated set is proportional to the model uncertainty, thus interval observers generate the state estimates with estimation error bounds, similarly to Kalman filters, but in the deterministic framework. Main tools and techniques for design of interval observers are reviewed in this tutorial for continuous-time, discrete-time and time-delayed systems.

    • [43] investigates the problem of observer design for a general class of linear singular time-delay systems, in which the time delays are involved in the state, the output and the known input (if there exists). The involvement of the delay could be multiple which however is rarely studied in the literature. Sufficient conditions are proposed which guarantees the existence of a Luenberger-like observer for the general system.

    • In [90] an interval observer is proposed for on-line estimation of differentiation errors in some class of high-order differentiators (like a high-gain differentiator, or homogeneous nonlinear differentiator, or super-twisting differentiator). The results are verified and validated on the telescopic link of a robotic arm for forestry applications in which the mentioned approaches are used to estimate the extension velocity while the interval observer gives bounds to this estimation.

    • The problem of interval observer design is studied in [87] for a class of linear hybrid systems. Several observers are designed oriented on different conditions of positivity and stability for estimation error dynamics. Efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated by computer experiments for academic and bouncing ball systems.

    • The problem of estimation of sequestered parasites Plasmodium falciparum in malaria, based on measurements of circulating parasites, is addressed in [60]. It is assumed that all (death, transition, recruitment and infection) rates in the model of a patient are uncertain (just intervals of admissible values are given) and the measurements are subject to a bounded noise, then an interval observer is designed. Stability of the observer can be verified by a solution of LMI. The efficiency of the observer is demonstrated in simulation.

  • Observer design:

    • [81] presents a new approach for observer design for a class of nonlinear singular systems which can be transformed into a special normal form. The interest of the proposed form is to facilitate the observer synthesis for the studied nonlinear singular systems. Necessary and sufficient geometrical conditions are deduced in order to guarantee the existence of a diffeomorphism which transforms the studied nonlinear singular systems into the proposed normal form.

    • In [38], we investigate the estimation problem for a class of partially observable nonlinear systems. For the proposed Partial Observer Normal Form (PONF), necessary and sufficient conditions are deduced to guarantee the existence of a change of coordinates which can transform the studied system into the proposed PONF. Examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

    • [71] deals with the problem of finite-time and fixed-time observation of linear multiple input multiple output (MIMO) control systems. The nonlinear dynamic observers , which guarantee convergence of the observer states to the original system state in a finite and a fixed (defined a priori) time, are studied. Algorithms for the observers parameters tuning are also developed. The theoretical results are illustrated by numerical examples.

    • [44] Sliding mode control design for linear systems with incomplete and noisy measurements of the output and additive/multiplicative exogenous disturbances is studied. A linear minimax observer estimating the system's state with minimal worst-case error is designed. An algorithm, generating continuous and discontinuous feedbacks, which steers the state as close as possible to a given sliding hyperplane in finite time, is presented. The optimality (sub-optimality) of the designed feedbacks is proven for the case of bounded noises and additive (multiplicative) disturbances of L2-class.

    • [37] deals with the design of a robust control for linear systems with external disturbances using a homogeneous differentiator-based observer based on a implicit Lyapunov function approach. Sufficient conditions for stability of the closed-loop system in the presence of external disturbances are obtained and represented by linear matrix inequalities. The parameter tuning for both controller and observer is formulated as a semi-definite programming problem with linear matrix inequalities constraints. Simulation results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and some improvements with respect to the classic linear observer approach.

    • The problem studied in [17] is one of improving the performance of a class of adaptive observer in the presence of exogenous disturbances. The H gains of both a conventional and the newly proposed sliding-mode adaptive observer are evaluated, to assess the effect of disturbances on the estimation errors. It is shown that if the disturbance is “matched” in the plant equations, then including an additional sliding-mode feedback injection term, dependent on the plant output, improves the accuracy of observation.

    • In [95], we consider the classical reaching problem of sliding mode control design, that is to find a control law which steers the state of a Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system towards a given hyperplane in a finite time. Since the LTI system is subject to unknown but bounded disturbances we apply the minimax observer which provides the best possible estimate of the system's state. The reaching problem is then solved in observer's state space by constructing a feedback control law. The cases of discontinuous and continuous admissible feedbacks are studied. The theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  • Estimation and Identification:

    • The problem of output control for linear uncertain system with external perturbations is studied in [77]. It is assumed that the output available for measurements is the higher order derivative of the state only (acceleration for a second order plant), which is also corrupted by noise. Then via series of integration an identification algorithm is proposed for identification of values of all parameters and unknown initial conditions for the state vector. Finally, two control algorithms are developed, adaptive and robust, providing boundedness of trajectories for the system. Efficiency of the obtained solutions is demonstrated by numerical experiments.

    • [24] focuses on the problem of velocity and position estimation. A solution is presented for a class of oscillating systems in which position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown. Only noisy acceleration measurements, that may be contaminated by zero mean noise and constant bias, are considered to be available. The proposal uses the periodic nature of the signals obtaining finite-time estimations while tackling integration drift accumulation.

    • In [41], we investigate the problem of simultaneous state and parameter estimation for a class of nonlinear systems which can be transformed into an output depending normal form. A new and simple adaptive observer for such class of systems is presented. Sufficient condition for the existence of the proposed observer is derived. A concrete application is given in order to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed result.

    • In [75], the problem of time-varying parameter identification is studied. To this aim, an identification algorithm is developed in order to identify time-varying parameters in a finite-time. The convergence proofs are based on a notion of finite-time stability over finite intervals of time, i.e. Short-finite-time stability; homogeneity for time-varying systems; and Lyapunov function approach. The algorithm asks for a condition over the regressor term which is related to the classic identifiability condition corresponding to the injectivity of such a term. Simulation results illustrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.