Section: Overall Objectives
Research axis 1: Mathematical modeling for cell population dynamics
Stem cells are essential for development and keep the maintenance of many tissues homeostasis. They are characterized by their ability to self-renew as well as to produce differentiated cells. They vary enormously, for each organ, in their proliferation capacity, their potency to produce different cell lineage and their response to various environmental cues. How a cell will react to a given external signal does not depend only on its current state but also on its environment. Understanding the effect of cell-to-cell heterogeneity and the spatial organization of cell populations is therefore necessary to help keeping the normal function of an organ.
We develop mathematical tools and methods to study cell population dynamics and other biological processes: stability of steady sates, existence of bifurcations, kinetic properties, spatial organization, in finely detailed cell populations. The main tools we use are hybrid discrete-continuous models, reaction-diffusion equations, structured models (in which the population is endowed with relevant structures or traits), delay differential systems, agent-based models. Our team has acquired an international expertise in the fields of analysis of reaction-diffusion and structured equations, particularly integro-differential and delay differential equations.
The mathematical methods we develop are not restricted to hematopoietic system (Research axis 2), and immune response (Research axis 3), rather we apply them in many other biological phenomena, for example: tissue renewal, morphogenesis, prion disease, atherosclerosis, hormonal regulation of food intake, cancer, and others.
The focus of this objective is the development, analysis and application of hybrid discrete-continuous, reaction-diffusion and structured partial differential models. The structured equations allow a fine description of a population as some structures (age, maturity, intracellular content) change with time. In many cases, structured equations can be partially integrated to yield integro-differential equations (ordinary or partial differential equations involving non-local integral terms), time-delay differential or time-delay partial differential, or coupled differential-difference models. Analysis of integro-differential and time-delay systems deals with existence of solutions and their stability. Applications are found in the study of normal and pathological hematopoietic system (Research axis 2), immune response (Research axis 3), morphogenesis, prion disease, cancer development and treatment, and generally in tissue renewal problems. Models based on structured equations are especially useful to take into account the effect of finite time cells take to divide, die or become mature. Reaction-diffusion equations are used in order to describe spatial distribution of cell populations. It is a well developed area of research in our team which includes qualitative properties of travelling waves for reaction-diffusion systems with or without delay, and complex nonlinear dynamics.
Our team has developed a solid expertise in mathematical analysis of reaction-diffusion with or without delay and structured equations (in particular, delay differential equations) and one of the most prolific. Other major groups are the teams of Benoit Perthame (Pierre et Marie CURIE University and Mamba, Paris, https://www.inria.fr/en/teams/mamba), Emmanuel Grenier (Ecole normale supérieure de Lyon and NUMED, https://www.inria.fr/en/teams/numed), Odo Diekmann (Utrecht University, The Netherlands, https://www.uu.nl/staff/ODiekmann), Avner Friedman (The Ohio State University, USA, https://people.math.osu.edu/friedman.158/), Jianhong Wu (York University, Canada, http://liam.lab.yorku.ca/), Glenn Webb (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA, https://as.vanderbilt.edu/math/bio/glenn-webb), Philip K. Maini (University of Oxford, England, https://people.maths.ox.ac.uk/maini/), Mark Chaplain (University of St Andrews, Scotland, http://www.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~majc/), Nicola Bellomo (University of Turin, Italy, http://staff.polito.it/nicola.bellomo/index.html). Most of the members of all these groups and of our team belong to the same mathematical community working on partial differential equations and dynamical systems with applications to biology and medicine.