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## Section: Application Domains

### Functional characterization of the resistance of bacterial populations to antimicrobial treatments

Antibiotic resistance is becoming a problem of central importance at a global level. Two mechanisms are at the origin of non-susceptibility to antimicrobial treatments. The first one comes from adaptation of bacterial cells to antibacterial treatments, notably through the modification of efflux pumps or the expression of enzymes that degrade the antibiotics. Cells are individually resistant. The second one, typically found in resistances to $\beta$-lactams, a broad class of antibiotics, originates from the release in the environment of the antibiotic degrading enzymes by the dead cells. This leads to population effects by which cells become collectively resilient.

The functional characterization of these different effects is important for the best use of antibiotics (antibiotic stewardship). In collaboration with Lingchong You (Duke University) and with Philippe Glaser (Institut Pasteur), we develop experimental platforms, models, and optimal model calibration methods that gives precise estimations of individual resistance and collective resilience of bacterial populations to antibiotic treatments.