Section: New Results
Virtual Human Animation
Participants : Franck Multon [contact] , Julien Pettré, Steve Tonneau.
A common issue in three-dimensional animation is the creation of contacts between a virtual creature and the environment. Contacts allow force exertion, which produces motion. This paper addresses the problem of computing contact conﬁgurations allowing to perform motion tasks such as getting up from a sofa, pushing an object or climbing. We propose a two-step method to generate contact conﬁgurations suitable for such tasks. The ﬁrst step is an ofﬂine sampling of the range of motion (ROM) of a virtual creature. The ROM of the human arms and legs is precisely determined experimentally. The second step is a run time request confronting the samples with the current environment. The best contact conﬁgurations are then selected according to a heuristic for task efﬁciency. The heuristic is inspired by the force transmission ratio. Given a contact conﬁguration, it measures the potential force that can be exerted in a given direction. The contact conﬁgurations are then used as inputs for an inverse kinematics solver that will compute the ﬁnal animation. Our method is automatic and does not require examples or motion capture data. It is suitable for real time applications and applies to arbitrary creatures in arbitrary environments. Various scenarios (such as climbing, crawling, getting up, pushing or pulling objects) are used to demonstrate that our method enhances motion autonomy and interactivity in constrained environments  ,  . In Figure 6 , a character is able to select the most appropriate constraints to pull a heavy cupboard by putting a foot on an obstacle to maximize the force ratio.